REVIEW OF TANZANIA’S MINING LEGAL-FRAMEWORK ON WOMEN PARTICIPATION IN DECISION-MAKING IN MINING SECTOR
Globally, the mining sector has for a long time been dominated by men resulting in limited women participation. Men, the dominant group in the sector reap profoundly than women who not only benefit less from the mining sector but also encounter disproportionately the gross impacts of the sector. Among these gross impacts, socio-cultural biases, gender-based violence, and chronic diseases are inclusive. Various measures have been taken at international, regional, sub-regional and domestic levels to promote gender equality. These are international, regional, and sub-regional conventions which Tanzania has ratified. Such conventions firstly, prohibit any form of discrimination against women in all sectors, mining inclusive; secondly, they require states to adopt special legal measures to guarantee gender equality in all sectors. Through documentary review and qualitative analysis of both primary and secondary sources, this study explored the extent to which women are involved in decision making in the large-scale mining sector in Tanzania. The study found that, although Tanzania has ratified international, regional, and sub-regional conventions on gender equality, participation of women in large-scale mining sector seems to be low compared to men. This paper concludes that, unless the government adopts special legal measures in favour of women, the gender parity in the mining sector is likely to remain a challenge the mining sector must address. The paper recommends for reforms of the mining legal framework for it to reflect preferential margin of women involvement in the decision-making organs in the large-scale mining. Such a reform will not only contribute towards eradication of double jeopardy women have been into, but also it will help Tanzania to meet her global legal and persuasive obligations to guarantee gender equality in all spheres of life.
women, participation, decision-making, large-scale mining, mining laws